LAND SURVEY: Uses, Classes & The Practice of Surveying
Every construction project of any magnitude is based more or less upon measurements taken during the process of a survey. Such projects are constructed about lines and points which were established by a surveyor. Aside from land surveys, practically speaking, all surveys of a private nature and most of those conducted by government agencies are of assistance in the conception, design, and execution of engineering works.
Classes of Survey
Surveys are basically divided into three classes viz:
- Surveys for the purpose of the provision of necessary information for the construction of private or public works.
- Surveys for the primary purpose of establishment of the boundaries of land.
- Surveys of large extent and high precision conducted by the government.
The Practice of Surveying
Survey practice is complex. No amount of theory will make a good surveyor, unless the requisite skill in the science and art of measuring, field and offices procedures are obtained. Hence, the importance of the practical phases of surveying cannot be overemphasized.
Surveying is frequently one of the first professional subjects studied by construction engineering students. Even though they are not expected to measure in surveying or be expert surveyors, it is pertinent to note and understand the education received in the science and art of measuring and computing and in practice, of mapping will contribute directly to their success in other subject areas regarding on the branch of engineering ultimately chosen. The same principles are equally important in other geosciences.
By virtue of the simplicity of the underlying principles of Engineering Surveying, lies the fact that there is little of theory to be studied, and training in the subject must be chiefly directed towards a thorough working knowledge of field methods, the associated instruments and the office routines.
Success in surveying is a product of the outcome and not only of skill in solving the larger problems connected with the general organization of surveys. This also includes an ardent attention to the methodical performance of the numerous details of field work. Frequent practice in the field of surveying under expert guidance saves the beginner from much memorizing of these details, makes for skill and speed in manipulating instruments, and promotes systematic habits of work. A little experience is necessary before one can entirely overcome the distractions of field conditions, especially when these are aggravated by physical fatigue and bad weather.
Even in favourable circumstances, there are many ways by which errors may enter into the work. It is a pointer to note as well as cogent to realize that absolute precision can never be attained in surveying.